Scour ProtectionRunoff and soil erosion are among the major environmental threats related to agricultural land use in Europe.
Seven in 10 skip waste soils, Soil and Landscape Consultant Tim O'Hare, tests contain the carcinogen Benzo(a)pyrene, and he estimates that around one-quarter could contain asbestos.
Controlling storm water flow over impervious areas is a multidisciplinary ecoScript where
- The pavement materials seal the soil surface, eliminating rainwater infiltration and natural groundwater recharge.
- The warm runoff from impervious surfaces reduces dissolved oxygen in stream water, making life difficult in aquatic ecosystems.
Clean WaterCompliance with the Clean Water Act mandatory erosion and sediment control devices must be installed on construction sites to minimize the release of soil into runoff waters.Many construction sites have relied on straw bale and silt fence barriers. Straw bales have been proven ineffective due to inappropriate placement, bad installation and the nature of their structure.Silt fences require expensive manpower for installation, inspection maintenance and removal. Silt fences cannot be placed on a slope or across a contour line and are not effective unless trenched or keyed in.
Biodiversity OffsetsBiodiversity offsetting is a method intended to help compensate for the detrimental impacts of development on biodiversity.iBodiversity offsetting is a system used predominantly by planning authorities and developers to fully compensate for biodiversity impacts associated with economic development, through the planning process.
Such an approach is designed to work by creating a credit based market that developers could use to offset actions deemed harmful to the environment by investing in habitat restoration for biodiversity elsewhereThe idea results in losses of biodiversity at an impact site is compensated for by the generation of ecologically equivalent gains elsewhere, resulting in ‘no net loss’ of biodiversity'.
In some circumstances, biodiversity offsets are designed to result in an overall biodiversity gain.
Offsetting is generally considered the final stage in a mitigation hierarchy, whereby predicted Biodiversity impacts must first be avoided, minimized and reversed by developers, before any remaining impacts are offset. The mitigation hierarchy is used to meet the environmental policy principle of "No Net Loss" of biodiversity alongside development.
The legal and institutional dimensions of biodiversity are a highly topical and increasingly popular approach used to compensate for impacts on species and ecosystems as a result of development, and is the subject of a large and growing body of scientific research. Acknowledging the limitations of what can be achieved through biodiversity offsetting is important if we are not to wake up one day and discover we have lost what we cannot replace.